Match - Wikipedia. A match is a tool for starting a fire. Typically, modern matches are made of small wooden sticks or stiff paper. One end is coated with a material that can be ignited by frictional heat generated by striking the match against a suitable surface.
The coated end of a match, known as the match . There are two main types of matches: safety matches, which can be struck only against a specially prepared surface, and strike- anywhere matches, for which any suitably frictional surface can be used.
Some match- like compositions, known as electric matches, are ignited electrically rather than from friction. Etymology. Depending on its formulation, a slow match burns at a rate of around 3. The modern equivalent of this sort of match is the simple fuse, still used in pyrotechnics to obtain a controlled time delay before ignition. But, when friction matches became commonplace, they became the main object meant by the term.
The word . But an ingenious man devised the system of impregnating little sticks of pinewood with sulfur and storing them ready for use. At the slightest touch of fire they burst into flame.
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One gets a little flame like an ear of corn. This marvellous thing was formerly called a . The matches were known as fa chu or tshui erh. Another, more common method was igniting tinder with sparks produced by striking flint and steel, or by sharply increasing air pressure in a fire piston. Early work had been done by alchemist Hennig Brandt, who discovered the flammable nature of phosphorus in 1. One was use of a spill, which was a thin object like a straw, rolled paper, or thin candle, which would be lit from a nearby fire and then used to light the pipe or cigar, often kept near the fireplace in a spill vase. These would be rubbed together, producing sparks.
If neither of these were available, one could use ember tongs to pick up a coal from a fire and light the tobacco. The first modern, self- igniting match was invented in 1. Jean Chancel, assistant to Professor Louis Jacques Th. The head of the match consisted of a mixture of potassium chlorate, sulfur, sugar, and rubber.
The match was ignited by dipping its tip in a small asbestos bottle filled with sulfuric acid. His match consisted of a small glass capsule containing a chemical composition of sulfuric acid coloured with indigo and coated on the exterior with potassium chlorate, wrapped up in a roll of paper.
Immediate ignition was caused by crushing the capsule with a pair of pliers. One version that he sold was called .
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The handle was large and made of hardwood so as to burn vigorously and last for a while. Some even had glass stems. A similar invention was patented in 1. John Hucks Stevens in America. It consisted of a wax stem that embedded cotton threads and had a tip of phosphorus. An alternative method was to produce the ignition through friction produced by rubbing two rough surfaces together.
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An early example was made by Fran. His crude match was called a briquet phosphorique and it used a sulfur- tipped match to scrape inside a tube coated internally with phosphorus. It was both inconvenient and unsafe. He developed a keen interest in trying to find a means of obtaining fire easily.
Several chemical mixtures were already known which would ignite by a sudden explosion, but it had not been found possible to transmit the flame to a slow- burning substance like wood. While Walker was preparing a lighting mixture on one occasion, a match which had been dipped in it took fire by an accidental friction upon the hearth.
He at once appreciated the practical value of the discovery, and started making friction matches. They consisted of wooden splints or sticks of cardboard coated with sulphur and tipped with a mixture of sulphide of antimony, chlorate of potash, and gum.
The treatment with sulphur helped the splints to catch fire, and the odor was improved by the addition of camphor. With each box was supplied a piece of sandpaper, folded double, through which the match had to be drawn to ignite it. He named the matches .
He did not divulge the exact composition of his matches. It was however dangerous and flaming balls sometimes fell to the floor burning carpets and dresses, leading to their ban in France and Germany. Holden did not patent his invention and claimed that one of his pupils wrote to his father Samuel Jones, a chemist in London who commercialised his process. These early matches had a number of problems - an initial violent reaction, an unsteady flame and unpleasant odor and fumes. Lucifers could ignite explosively, sometimes throwing sparks a considerable distance.
Lucifers were manufactured in the United States by Ezekial Byam. In England, these phosphorus matches were called . The earliest American patent for the phosphorus friction match was granted in 1.
Alonzo Dwight Phillips of Springfield, Massachusetts. In 1. 84. 3 William Ashgard replaced the sulfur with beeswax, reducing the pungency of the fumes.
This was replaced by paraffin in 1. Charles W. Smith, resulting in what were called .
From 1. 87. 0 the end of the splint was fireproofed by impregnation with fire- retardant chemicals such as alum, sodium silicate, and other salts resulting in what was commonly called a . Other advances were made for the mass manufacture of matches.
Early matches were made from blocks of woods with cuts separating the splints but leaving their bases attached. Later versions were made in the form of thin combs. The splints would be broken away from the comb when required. He mixed the phosphorus with lead and gum arabic, poured the paste- like mass into a jar, and dipped the pine sticks into the mixture and let them dry. When he tried them that evening, all of them lit evenly. He sold the invention and production rights for these noiseless matches to Istv.
As a match manufacturer, R. Deaths and suicides from eating the heads of matches became frequent.
The earliest report of phosphorus necrosis was made in 1. Lorinser in Vienna, and a New York surgeon published a pamphlet with notes on nine cases. The strike was focused on the severe health complications of working with white phosphorus, such as phossy jaw. The women and girls also solicited contributions. Members of the Fabian Society, including George Bernard Shaw, Sidney Webb, and Graham Wallas, were involved in the distribution of the cash collected. It was suggested that this would make a suitable substitute in match manufacture although it was slightly more expensive. The company developed a safe means of making commercial quantities of phosphorus sesquisulfide in 1.
Finland prohibited the use of white phosphorus in 1. Denmark in 1. 87. France in 1. 89. 7, Switzerland in 1. Netherlands in 1. The United Kingdom passed a law in 1.
December 1. 91. 0. The United States did not pass a law, but instead placed a . The major innovation in its development was the use of red phosphorus, not on the head of the match but instead on a specially designed striking surface. Arthur Albright developed the industrial process for large- scale manufacture of red phosphorus after Schr. By 1. 85. 1, his company was producing the substance by heating white phosphorus in a sealed pot at a specific temperature.
He exhibited his red phosphorus in 1. The Great Exhibition in London. The idea of creating a specially designed striking surface was developed in 1. Swede. Gustaf Erik Pasch. Pasch patented the use of red phosphorus in the striking surface. He found that this could ignite heads that did not need to contain white phosphorus.
Johan Edvard and his younger brother Carl Frans Lundstr. The idea for separating the chemicals had been introduced in 1. France as Allumettes Androgynes.
These were sticks with one end made of potassium chlorate and the other of red phosphorus. They had to be broken and the heads rubbed together. Such dangers were removed when the striking surface was moved to the outside of the box. The development of a specialized matchbook with both matches and a striking surface occurred in the 1. American Joshua Pusey, who sold his patent to the Diamond Match Company. The striking surface on modern matchboxes is typically composed of 2. Zn. O or Ca. CO3), 2.
Safety matches ignite due to the extreme reactivity of phosphorus with the potassium chlorate in the match head. When the match is struck the phosphorus and chlorate mix in a small amount forming something akin to the explosive Armstrong's mixture which ignites due to the friction. The Swedes long held a virtual worldwide monopoly on safety matches, with the industry mainly situated in J. In 1. 86. 2 it established its own factory and bought the rights for the British safety match patent from the Lundstr. They have remained particularly popular in the United States, even when safety matches had become common in Europe, and are still widely used today around the world, including in many developing countries. Matches, strike- anywhere. Matches, safety. They are not universally forbidden on aircraft; however, they must be declared as dangerous goods and individual airlines or countries may impose tighter restrictions.
They have a strikeable tip similar to a normal match, but the combustible compound – including an oxidiser – continues down the length of the stick, coating half or more of the entire matchstick. The match also has a waterproof coating (which often makes the match more difficult to light), and often storm matches are longer than standard matches. As a result of the combustible coating, storm matches burn strongly even in strong winds, and can even spontaneously re- ignite after being briefly immersed under water. The pyrotechnics compound burns self- sustained. The hobby of collecting match- related items, such as matchcovers and matchbox labels, is known as phillumeny. Matches with an intellectual pastime printed.
Household safety matches. See also. London: Oxford University Press. Firearms in American history 1. Etymologicon universale: or, Universal etymological dictionary.